September 11, by Saugat Adhikari In the course of human evolution, at a certain point in time, the idea of living in a group with mutual understanding and dependency became a very useful and practical lifestyle. From such small isolated groups, communities were formed.
Causes Of The Agrarian Transformation Because there are no written records of the transition period between and B. Climatic changes associated with the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age about 12, B. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas.
They also left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East, where agriculture first arose and many animals were first domesticated. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended.
In addition, it is likely that the shift to sedentary farming was prompted in part by an increase in human populations in certain areas. It is possible that the population growth was caused by changes in the climate and plant and animal life, forcing hunting bands to move into the territories where these shifts had been minimal.
It is also possible that population growth occurred within these unaffected regions, because the hunting-and-gathering pattern reached higher levels of productivity. Peoples like the Natufians found their human communities could grow significantly by intensively harvesting grains that grew in the wild.
As the population grew, more and more attention was given to the grain harvest, which eventually led to the conscious and systematic cultivation of plants and thus the agrarian revolution. The Domestication Of Plants And Animals The peoples who first cultivated cereal grains had long observed them growing in the wild and gleaned their seeds as they gathered other plants for their leaves and roots.
Hunting-and-gathering bands in these areas may have consciously experimented with planting and nurturing seeds taken from the wilds or they may have accidentally discovered the principles of domestication by observing the growth of seeds dropped near their campsites.
However it began, the practice of agriculture caught on only gradually. Archeological evidence suggests that the first agriculturists retained their hunting-and-gathering activities as a hedge against the ever-present threat of starvation.
But as Stone Age peoples became more adept at cultivating a growing range of crops, including protein-rich legumes such as peas and beans, various fruits, and olives, the effort they expended on activities outside agriculture diminished. It is probable that the earliest farmers broadcast wild seeds, a practice that cut down on labor but sharply reduced the potential yield.
Over the centuries, more and more care was taken to select the best grain for seed and to mix different strains in ways that improved both crop yields and resistance to plant diseases. As the time required to tend growing plants and the dependence on agricultural production for subsistence increased, some roving bands chose to settle down while others practiced a mix of hunting and shifting cultivation that allowed them to continue to move about.
Though several animals may have been domesticated before the discovery of agriculture, the two processes combined to make up the critical transformation in human culture called the Neolithic New Stone Age revolution. Different animal species were tamed in different ways that reflected both their own natures and the ways in which they interacted with humans.
Dogs, for example, were originally wolves that hunted humans or scavenged at their campsites.
As early as 12, B. The strains of dogs that gradually developed proved adept at controlling herd animals like sheep. Relatively docile and defenseless herds of sheep could be controlled once their leaders had been captured and tamed.
Sheep, goats, and pigs which also were scavengers at human campsites were first domesticated in the Middle East between and B.
Horned cattle, which were faster and better able to defend themselves than wild sheep, were not tamed until about B. The central place of bull and cattle symbolism in the sacrificial and fertility cults of many early peoples has led some archeologists to argue that their domestication was originally motivated by religious sentiments rather than a desire for new sources of food and clothing.
Domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep provided New Stone Age humans with additional sources of protein-rich meat and in some cases milk. Animal hides and wool greatly expanded the materials from which clothes, containers, shelters, and crude boats could be crafted.
Animal horns and bones could be carved or used for needles and other utensils. Because plows and wheels did not come into use until the Bronze Age c. There is evidence, however, that peoples in northern areas used tamed reindeer to pull sledges, and those farther South used camels for transporting goods.
More importantly, the Neolithic peoples used domesticated herd animals as a steady source of manure to enrich the soil and thus improve the yield of the crops that were gradually becoming the basis of their livelihood.
Through most of the Neolithic period, sedentary agricultural communities coexisted with more numerous bands of hunters and gatherers, migratory cultivators, and hunters and fishers.
Even after sedentary agriculture became the basis for the livelihood of the majority of humans, hunters and gatherers and shifting cultivators held out in many areas of the globe. For example, due to the absence of the horse and most herd animals in the Americas, nomadic hunting cultures became the main alternatives there.
Impacts of participatory tree domestication on farmer livelihoods in West and Central Africa. farming practices, and culture (Table 2), impact of tree domestication on household income has. Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13, to 10, years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. the dramatic impact of dairy farming on Europeans is clearly stamped in their DNA. Prior to. The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of r-bridal.com least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.
The domestication of animals gave rise to pastoralism which has proven the strongest competitor to sedentary agriculture throughout most of the world.
Pastoralism has thrived in semiarid areas such as central Asia, the Sudanic belt south of the Sahara desert in Africa, and the savanna zone of East and South Africa. These areas were incapable of supporting dense or large populations.
The nomadic, herding way of life has tended to produce independent and hardy peoples, well-versed in the military skills needed not only for their survival but also to challenge more heavily populated agrarian societies. Horse-riding nomads who herd sheep or cattle have destroyed powerful kingdoms and laid the foundations for vast empires.Plant domestication was arguably the single most important advancement in the history of mankind.
Once developed, agriculture spread across the globe like wild-fire. Our early ancestors unwittingly selected for traits that were easily fixed within the crop species, and as a product of their selection pressures, we now have reduced genetic.
Impacts of participatory tree domestication on farmer livelihoods in West and Central Africa. farming practices, and culture (Table 2), impact of tree domestication on household income has. Major Highlights: Concept of Democracy and Senate, AnSenateOlympics The ancient Greeks may not have been the oldest civilization, but they are doubtlessly one of the most influential civilizations to have ever existed in the world.
A History of World Agriculture: From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis (Monthly Review Press, ) Marxist perspective; Prentice, E. Parmalee. Hunger and history: the influence of hunger on human history (Harper, ) Tauger, Mark. Agriculture in World History (Routledge, ) Premodern.
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