The Korea Times reports that in some cases the feedstuffs were improperly stored, sometimes in areas where researchers ate and slept.
Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems i. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI passive surveillance in Vietnam.
Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities.
The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices.
This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector feed, chicks and medicine supply. One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread.
Infectious disease surveillance, economic evaluation, acceptability, participatory epidemiology, stated preference methods, highly pathogenic avian influenza Impacts Perceived costs and benefits of the passive surveillance system were assessed in three locations of Vietnam.
The perceived value of the passive surveillance system was influenced by different factors including uncertainty in outcomes of reporting, transaction costs, and anticipation of impacts on the poultry market, financial costs supported by local authorities, government support and usefulness of sanitary information.
Adequate allocation of efforts to surveillance and control of animal diseases is becoming even more critical for such countries with limited economic resources. Therefore, the need to optimize the efficiency of animal disease surveillance systems to ensure their sustainability is of primary importance.
Passive surveillance, also called reactive surveillance, relies on spontaneous reports of disease suspicions by animal producers, other actors inside or outside the animal production sector hereafter the private actors of passive surveillance systems to veterinary authorities, who are locally represented by government veterinarians hereafter the public actors of surveillance systems Hoinville, However, these factors have not yet been integrated within an economic evaluation framework.
Participatory epidemiology PE proved to be of interest in this respect. The disease is subject to compulsory notification of suspect cases to authorities based on a precise case definition Department of Animal Health, The planned official response to these notifications includes the following: Previous studies have suggested that veterinary authorities are somehow disconnected from the network of private actors of poultry production with regards to animal health Desvaux and Figuie, These three provinces were selected based on their respective characteristics regarding geographical location HD being located in the north, DN and LA in the southpoultry production and past HPAI reports.
DN had one of the highest concentrations of commercial and industrial poultry production systems in Vietnam, whereas in the two other provinces, such systems were less present. Approvals of the study were obtained from the departments of agriculture and people's committees of the three provinces.
First, several focus group interviews were performed in each study area. Participants were contacted with the help of commune or village authorities.
The groups gathered five to twenty poultry farmers. The different production systems present in the study areas were represented, each focus group gathering farmers from the same production system and one or several focus groups being conducted for each production system.
Production systems were defined according to the type of production broiler, layer or parental farmsthe species chicken, duck or quail and the production scale: Poultry farmers of each production system who displayed willingness to participate in the study were then asked for individual interviews.
The number of these individual interviews was determined by adapting the concept of saturation to the objective of the study Bowen, During this first phase of interviews, other categories of actors were identified as being directly or indirectly impacted by the HPAI passive surveillance process.
Individuals belonging to those additional categories of actors and in contact with individuals from the initial sampling frame were then asked to participate in the study. Those who accepted were interviewed individually. Additionally, focus group and individual interviews of government veterinarians were conducted at the village, commune, district and province levels.
Data collection protocol Data were collected by teams of two to five researchers and students, including at least one Vietnamese researcher. All of them had a veterinary or animal production degree and did not have any relationship with interviewed participants.
All interview team members were previously trained using PE approaches Mariner and Paskin, Interviewees were always informed of the purpose of the study and could stop the interview whenever they wanted.There is mixed evidence about the effects of L-carnitine in treating disorders caused by low carnitine levels in people with serious kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis.
The influenza (flu) viruses selected for inclusion in the seasonal flu vaccines are updated each year based on which influenza virus strains are circulating, how they are spreading, and how well current vaccine strains protect against newly identified strains.
Influenza is caused by infection of the respiratory tract with influenza viruses, RNA viruses of the Orthomyxovirus genus. Influenza viruses are classified into 3 types: A, B, and C.
Influenza viruses are classified into 3 types: A, B, and C. Apr 24, · Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
It originated in the Guangdong province of China in late , spread rapidly around the world along international air-travel routes, and resulted in 8, cases and deaths in 33 countries and areas on 5. Background. The potential impact of an influenza pandemic can be assessed by calculating a set of transmissibility parameters, the most important being the reproduction number (R), which is defined as the average number of secondary cases generated per typical infectious case.
Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective against all variants that have caused disease in humans, including the virus of the pandemic (Tumpey ). In human H5N1 influenza, treatment with an oral neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, seems to be effective in some cases, but may fail in others.