Section 1A Review of the Literature Introduction to Trauma and Traumatic Stress Reactions Providing a comprehensive literature review on trauma, traumatic stress, trauma-informed care TICand trauma-related interventions is a daunting task when considering the quantity and prolific production of research in this area in the past 20 years. To manage the volume of information, this literature review mainly focuses on reviews and meta-analyses rather than seminal work to address many of the most relevant topics. Although many individuals report a single specific traumatic event, others, especially those seeking mental health or substance abuse services, have been exposed to multiple or chronic traumatic events.
The landmark Adverse Childhood Experiences Study established the correlation between the accumulation of adversity during childhood and poor health outcomes.
Advances in neurobiology since then have helped to explain the connection: Exposure to extreme or prolonged patterns of stress during childhood can cause a variety of changes in brain structure and functionleading to enduring neurobehavioral consequences.
If unrecognized and untreated, ACEs may negatively affect health and well-being throughout the life span and can be a powerful determinant of health outcomes. However, not all ACEs cause lifelong problems for a child. Trauma-informed practicessuch as early childhood interventions that mitigate social and environment risks for the family, can promote resilience and better developmental outcomes.
Promising community-level approaches can also ameliorate the impact of ACEs, especially in communities that have suffered generations of poverty or historical trauma culminating in toxic stress and poor health outcomes. The research on ACEs has continued to evolve and deepen over the years, and has been influencing policy and practice in an increasingly diverse array of sectors—from pediatrics to public education to juvenile criminal justice systemsto name a few.
This fall, the journal of the Academic Pediatric Association, Academic Pediatrics, dedicated an entire special issue to Child Well-Being and Adverse Childhood Experiences in the United Stateswhich represented the culmination of a four-year effort to engage stakeholders across multiple sectors.
Policymakers have taken note of the growing body of ACE research, and there has been a promising surge in proposed policies that recognize the impact of ACEs and incorporate trauma-informed approaches.
This represents a dramatic increase from the handful of bills that NCSL identified in Some of the policy approaches presented in these bills include: Providing school personnel with training related to ACEs; Requiring or encouraging health care providers to use an ACE questionnaire or screening tool; Creating task forces or study committees for ACEs specifically or a related topic; Appropriating funds for ACE prevention; and Funding pilot projects or initiatives for ACE prevention.
ACEs Connection has also been tracking proposed bills and enacted statutes that include references to trauma-informed policy or would have the effect of mitigating ACEs with or without a specific mention of ACEs or trauma-informed practices.
Older children and adolescents exposed to trauma also benefit from comfort and affection offered by trusted adults, reassurance of their safety, and the opportunity to talk about their experiences and worries when ready. But when Ford played that expert’s role on her own behalf, it served a different purpose. It was somewhat queer to watch such bloodless footnotes being added to a harrowing first-person account. Oct 10, · Children exposed to traumatic or stressful events can experience psychological problems that have long-lasting effects. RAND research on childhood trauma — such as family conflicts, natural disasters, sexual assault, the death of a family member, school violence and bullying, and the trauma faced by immigrant children — examines the impact of such events on an individual's life course.
This scan revealed 20 enacted statutes in 15 states that aim to mitigate ACEs. The momentum to integrate trauma-informed practice into state policy approaches is very encouraging. There have also been a number of innovative non-profit initiatives aimed at promoting trauma-informed practices at the community level and across sectors.
For example, Mobilizing Action for Resilient Communities is working with communities to pilot trauma-informed programs and to promote best practices. Innovative community approaches, such as the Building Community Resilience BCR model, aim to create an integrated network of partners across child health and community-based agencies to address the root causes of toxic stress and childhood adversity.
Advancing Trauma-Informed Careled by the Center for Health Care Strategiesis also overseeing trauma-informed pilot projects in the health care sector. Collaboration and engagement with local communities and across different sectors will be critical to effectively serve people with histories of trauma.
This area is ripe for ongoing policy surveillance and analysis of how different policy approaches are affecting trauma-informed practice and populations with high ACE scores.
The Network plans to continue to focus on legal and policy issues relating to ACEs and trauma-informed practice. If you have questions about these issues and would benefit from legal technical assistance, please feel free to contact the Network.
This blog post was developed by Brittney Crock BauerlyJ. The Network for Public Health Law provides information and technical assistance on issues related to public health. The legal information and assistance provided in this post does not constitute legal advice or legal representation.
For legal advice, readers should consult an attorney in their state. The views expressed in this post do not necessarily represent the views of, and should not be attributed to, RWJF.Nov 17, · Specifically, youth were selected for variation on experience of trauma: low exposure to trauma (0–1 events), medium exposure (2–3 events) and high exposure (4 or more events).
Within each trauma exposure level purposive sampling involved achieving a balanced distribution of participants by age [11–16] and gender. Of the 48 eligible participants identified, 30 youth completed the interview .
This introductory article on qualitative research methods for trauma research is sponsored by the ISTSS Research Methods Special Interest Group and the Conference on Innovations in Trauma Research Methods (CITRM). It is based on a presentation by Carl Auerbach at the CITRM meeting.
different demographics of people are affected and come are interconnected in the family unit. This means that a father’s PTSD may result in gender-based violence which then traumatizes both the mother and the child, thus creating a new generation of trauma . Jun 07, · What inspired me about this paper is that 1) its Australian 2) It brings to life that idea that people who experience traumatic grief are actively “resisting” those stage/phase/medical models of grief, and 3) It also brings to life the natural resilience that people have in the face of great trauma and loss.
Sep 20, · How childhood trauma can affect mental and physical health into adulthood Shanta R. Dube, Georgia State University We've known for years .
interviews and focus groups were utilized in an attempt to better understand the topic of trauma in northern Uganda. These interviews were conducted amongst a population of NGO workers, local government, medical staff, and victims of trauma themselves.
These respondents were specifically targeted for their relevance to trauma and its treatment.