Different types of chemical process diagrams How these diagrams represent different scales of process views One consistent method for drawing process flow diagrams The information to be included in a process flow diagram The purpose of operator training simulators and recent advances in 3-D representation of different chemical processes The chemical process industry CPI is involved in the production of a wide variety of products that improve the quality of our lives and generate income for companies and their stockholders.
Supply Chain Management SCM is one such business function that has benefited substantially from optimization software advances and solutions. The primary goal of SCM is to maximize profit by integrated management of material and transactional flows within a business and to customer and partner companies.
The petroleum refining industry has effectively embraced the software solutions to optimize the business supply chain to maximize the profit margins and create order in the chaos of numerous opportunities and challenges. The supply chain of a typical petroleum refining company involves a wide spectrum of activities, starting from crude purchase and crude transportation to refineries, refining operations, product transportation and finally delivering the product to the end user.
The nature of the value chain is such that its economics are extremely complex and heavily linked Refer to Figure 1. For example, the process of selecting the right crude is linked not only to the transportation costs involved in delivering it to the refinery, but it must take into consideration the refinery configuration, capabilities and constraints in converting the crude into products, as well as the product volume and price fluctuations.
Software solutions based on Linear Programming LP technique have emerged as leaders among various mathematical optimization techniques available to optimize the entire supply chain from crude evaluation and selection, production planning and product logistic planning.
The objective of this article is to create an appreciation among readers about the application of Linear Programming LP in refinery planning and optimization as a key component of the business supply chain.
Complexity of operations and the need and scope of optimization Implementation of Linear Programming for refinery planning and optimization Experiences in implementation and usage of Linear Programming The bottom line Figure 1: However, the number of options for buying the crudes under a fluctuating price scenario and transporting them to refineries are so enormous that it is very difficult to evaluate all the crudes and decide on the optimum crude mix for the refinery.
Refineries buy crudes both on term contracts with leading suppliers and also by spot purchases from the market.
The optimum selection of term and spot crudes is extremely difficult when multiple refineries are involved and work in an integrated scenario. Crude Transportation and Process Once the crudes are selected and purchased, the focus is to optimize the transportation cost from the crude suppliers to refineries.
The transportation cost can be minimized by considering the multiple options available for cargo sizes, sea routes, loading and unloading infrastructure facilities, taxes and duties, etc.
Simplified Flow Diagram for a Modern Refinery Courtesy UOP The crudes often land at refinery sites as a mix of various crudes and various options of crude blending are evaluated before it is processed. The most common configuration includes catalytic cracking, hydro cracking and thermal cracking to maximize the bottom of the barrel.
The other process technologies like catalytic reforming, hydro treating and sulfur recovery are a must to comply with stringent environment and product quality regulations Refer to Figure 2 for a process flow diagram of a modern refinery.
The product demands, quality and prices drive the entire crude processing and secondary unit operations.
Multiple streams with multiple blending options to make different grades of a product further make the task of refinery planning cumbersome and demanding. Moreover, the future promises to add even more complexity through additional product specifications, environmental norms, changing feedstock, product prices, mergers and acquisitions.
Page 1 of 5.This chapter covers different types of chemical process diagrams, how these diagrams represent different scales of process views, one consistent method for drawing process flow diagrams, the information to be included in a process flow diagram, and the purpose of operator training simulators and recent advances in 3-D representation of different chemical processes.
Download Business Planning Process Diagram Chart Concept Stock Photos for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy . Operations > CPM. CPM - Critical Path Method. In , DuPont developed a project management method designed to address the challenge of shutting down chemical plants for maintenance and then restarting the plants once the maintenance had been completed. Inbound Logistics' glossary of transportation, logistics, supply chain, and international trade terms can help you navigate through confusion and get to the meaning behind industry jargon.
Purpose Application Exceptions Process Safety Information Hazards of the Chemicals Used in the Process Technology of the Process Equipment in the Process. To access the updated Vendor Information Pages(VIP) you must select one of the options available through AccessVA Login: Veteran Small Business Owners: DS Login: Veterans (including Veterans Small Business Owners (Veteran Owned Small Business (VOSB) or Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) or their business representatives who are also Veterans.
Download Business Planning Process Diagram Chart Concept Stock Photos for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy . Operations > CPM. CPM - Critical Path Method. In , DuPont developed a project management method designed to address the challenge of shutting down chemical plants for maintenance and then restarting the plants once the maintenance had been completed.
Among science fiction stories with space flight, the overwhelming majority are about combat, both between spacecraft and between futuristic ground troops.
A risk assessment is a process to identify potential hazards and analyze what could happen if a hazard occurs. A business impact analysis (BIA) is the process for determining the potential impacts resulting from the interruption of time sensitive or critical business processes.. There are numerous hazards to . National Crop Insurance Service has a powerpoint presentation the explains what farm business planning is and is not, and walks farmers through the process of business planning. U.S. Small Business Administration works with local partners to counsel, mentor and train small businesses. Diagram of business continuity planning process - download this royalty free Stock Photo in seconds. No membership needed.