Ancient Egyptian scripts Hieratic script The Hieratic script was invented and developed more or less at the same time as the hieroglyphic script and was used in parallel with it for everyday purposes such as keeping records and accounts and writing letters.
Emblem glyphs[ edit ] Tikal or "Mutal" Emblem Glyph, Stela 26 in Tikal's Litoteca Museum An inscription in Maya glyphs from the site of Naranjorelating to the reign of king Itzamnaaj K'awil, — This section may be too technical for most readers to understand.
Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. October Learn how and when to remove this template message An "emblem glyph" is a kind of royal title.
It consists of a word ajaw —a Classic Maya term for "lord" of yet unclear etymology but well-attested in Colonial sources  —and a place name that precedes the word ajaw and functions as an adjective. An expression "Boston lord" would be a perfect English analogy.
However, an "emblem glyph" is not a "glyph" at all: This title was identified in by Heinrich Berlin who coined the term "emblem glyph".
Berlin also noticed that while the smaller elements remained relatively constant, the main sign changed from site to site. Berlin proposed that the main signs identified individual cities, their ruling dynasties, or the territories they controlled.
Subsequently, Marcus  argued that the "emblem glyphs" referred to archaeological sites, broken down in a 5-tiered hierarchy of asymmetrical distribution.
Marcus' research assumed that the emblem glyphs were distributed in a pattern of relative site importance depending on broadness of distribution, roughly broken down as follows: Primary regional centers capitals TikalCalakmuland other "superpowers" were generally first in the region to acquire a unique emblem glyph s.
Texts referring to other primary regional centers occur in the texts of these "capitals", and dependencies exist which use the primary center's glyph. Secondary centers Altun HaLubaantunXunantunichand other mid-sized cities had their own glyphs but are only rarely mentioned in texts found in the primary regional center, while repeatedly mentioning the regional center in their own texts.
Tertiary centers towns had no glyphs of their own, but have texts mentioning the primary regional centers and perhaps secondary regional centers on occasion. These were followed by the villages with no emblem glyphs and no texts mentioning the larger centers, and hamlets with little evidence of texts at all.
The debate on the nature of "emblem glyphs" received a new spin with the monograph by David Stuart and Stephen D.
Some of these place names also appeared in the "emblem glyphs", some were attested in the "titles of origin" various expressions like "a person from Boston"but some were not incorporated in personal titles at all. Moreover, the authors also highlighted the cases when the "titles of origin" and the "emblem glyphs" did not overlap, building upon an earlier research by Houston.
Maya numerals List of Maya numerals from 0 to 19 with underneath two vertically oriented examples The Mayas used a positional base-twenty vigesimal numerical system which only included whole numbers. For simple counting operations, a bar and dot notation was used.
The dot represents 1 and the bar represents 5. A shell was used to represent zero. Numbers from 6 to 19 are formed combining bars and dots, and can be written horizontally or vertically. These four examples show how the value of Maya numerals can be calculated Numbers over 19 are written vertically and read from the bottom to the top as powers of The bottom number represents numbers from 0 to 20, so the symbol shown does not need to be multiplied.
The second line from the bottom represents the amount of 20s there are, so that number is multiplied by The third line from the bottom represents the amount of s, so it's multiplied by ; the fourth by ; the fifth by , etc.
Each successive line is an additional power of twenty similar to how in Arabic numeralsadditional powers of 10 are added to the right of the first digit.
This positional system allows the calculation of large figures, necessary for chronology and astronomy. However, murals excavated in have pushed back the origin of Maya writing by several centuries, and it now seems possible that the Maya were the ones who invented writing in Mesoamerica.
However, as part of his campaign to eradicate pagan rites, Bishop Diego de Landa ordered the collection and destruction of written Maya works, and a sizable number of Maya codices were destroyed. Later, seeking to use their native language to convert the Maya to Christianity, he derived what he believed to be a Maya "alphabet" the so-called de Landa alphabet.
Although the Maya did not actually write alphabetically, nevertheless he recorded a glossary of Maya sounds and related symbols, which was long dismissed as nonsense[ example needed ] but eventually became a key resource in deciphering the Maya script, though it has itself not been completely deciphered.
The difficulty was that there was no simple correspondence between the two systems, and the names of the letters of the Spanish alphabet meant nothing to Landa's Maya scribe, so Landa ended up asking the equivalent of write H: This was the first Latin orthography for any of the Mayan languages,[ citation needed ] which number around thirty.
Only four Maya codices are known to have survived the conquistadors. Knowledge of the writing system was lost, probably by the end of the 16th century.
Renewed interest in it was sparked by published accounts of ruined Maya sites in the 19th century. In the s, Benjamin Whorf wrote a number of published and unpublished essays, proposing to identify phonetic elements within the writing system. Although some specifics of his decipherment claims were later shown to be incorrect, the central argument of his work, that Maya hieroglyphs were phonetic or more specifically, syllabicwas later supported by the work of Yuri Knorozov —who played a major role in deciphering Maya writing.
He further improved his decipherment technique in his monograph "The Writing of the Maya Indians"  and published translations of Maya manuscripts in his work "Maya Hieroglyphic Manuscripts".Below you can find a breakdown of the Hieroglyphic alphabet as defined by Gardiner.
Hieratic Gardiner code transliteration Repre. An example of hieratic script in the Onomasticon of Amenemepet. The Onomasticon of Amenemipet (also known as the "Onomasticon of Amenemope") is an onomasticon of late New Kingdom date.
development of ancient hieroglyphs. As Egyptian writing evolved during its long history, different versions of the Egyptian hieroglyphic script were developed.
In addition to the traditional hieroglyphs, there were also two cursive equivalents: hieratic and demotic. The Ancient Egyptian scribe, or sesh, was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and dena (arithmetics).
Hieroglyphic writing - Cryptographic hieroglyphic writing: That knowledge of the hieroglyphic system and the principles upon which it was devised had not become diluted with time is attested by two phenomena: cryptography and the development of the hieroglyphic writing during the last millennium of its existence.
From the middle of the 3rd millennium but more frequently in the New Kingdom. Hieroglyphic writing - Hieratic script: The Egyptian cursive script, called hieratic writing, received its name from the Greek hieratikos (“priestly”) at a time during the late period when the script was used only for sacred texts, whereas everyday secular documents were written in another style, the demotic script (from Greek dēmotikos, .