Etymology The word appears as the title of Robert Burns ' " Halloween "a poem traditionally recited by Scots The word Halloween or Hallowe'en dates to about  and is of Christian origin. Over time, All Hallow s E v en evolved into Hallowe'en. Today's Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folk customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countriessome of which are believed to have pagan roots.
References and Further Reading 1. Introduction What is a parent?
The answer one gives to this question will likely include, either implicitly or explicitly, particular assumptions about the grounds of parental rights and obligations. Parenthood and biological parenthood are often seen as synonymous.
But of course, adoptive parents are also parents by virtue of assuming the parental role. This commonsense fact opens the door for a consideration not only of the possible connections between biology and parenthood, but other issues as well, such as the role of consent in acquiring parental rights and obligations, which then leads to a host of other questions that are not only theoretically important, but existentially significant as well.
What does it mean for a parent to possess rights, as a parent? Why think that such rights exist? What obligations do parents have to their children?
What is the role of the state, if any, concerning the parent-child relationship? These questions are central for our understanding of the moral, social, personal, and political dimensions of the parent-child relationship. Philosophical Accounts of Parental Rights and Obligations When considering the rights of parents, both positive and negative rights are involved.
A positive right in this context is a right to have the relevant interests one has as a parent in some way promoted by the state. For example, some argue that parents have a right to maternity and paternity leave, funded in part or whole by the state.
Regarding parental obligations, the focus in what follows will be on moral obligations, rather than legal ones, with a few exceptions. A parent might have a moral obligation to her child to provide her with experiences such as musical education or opportunities to participate in sports that enrich her life, without being legally bound to do so.
In this section, the various accounts of the grounds of the moral rights and obligations of parents will be discussed. Proprietarianism An advocate of proprietarianism holds that children are the property of their parents, and that this serves to ground parental rights and perhaps obligations.
Proprietarianists argue, given that parents in some sense produce their children, that children are the property of their parents in some sense of the term.
Aristotle held this type of view, insofar as he takes children and slaves to be property of the father Nicomachean Ethics, b. At least one contemporary philosopher, Jan Narveson, has argued that children are the property of their parents, and that this grounds parental rights.
This does not relieve parents of having obligations regarding their children even though children do not yet possess rights Narveson For Narveson, how parents treat their children is limited by how that treatment impacts other rights-holders.
Nevertheless, parents have the right to direct the lives of their children, because they exerted themselves as producers, bringing children into existence. A different sort of proprietarianism centers on the idea that parents own themselves, including their genetic material, and since children are a product of that material it follows that parents have rights over their genetic offspring.
Critics of proprietarianism primarily reject it on the grounds that it is immoral to conceive of children as property. Children are human beings, and as such, cannot rightly be owned by other human beings.
It follows from this that children are not the property of their parents. Most contemporary philosophers reject proprietarianism. Historically, proprietarianism is often connected with absolutism, which is the idea that parental authority over children is in an important sense, limitless.
Absolutists held that fathers have the right to decide whether or not their child lives or dies. This view is no longer advocated in the contemporary philosophical literature, of course, but in the past was thought by some that this extreme level of parental authority was morally justified.
Some advocates of this view thought that because a child is the creation of the parent, that absolutism follows. According to Bodin The natural affection that fathers have towards their children will prevent them from abusing their authority. Critics of absolutism reject it for reasons similar to those offered against proprietarianism.
They claim that is clearly immoral to grant parents the power to end the lives of their children. Biology Is a biological relationship between a parent and child necessary or sufficient for parenthood? That is, does biology in some sense ground the rights and obligations of parents?
Two types of biological accounts of parenthood have emerged which are more detailed than those which emphasize the general value of biology in the parent-child relationship. Advocates of the first type emphasize the genetic connection between parent and child, while advocates of the second take gestation to be crucial.
The advocates of the genetic account believe that the genetic connection between parent and child grounds parenthood. A person has rights and obligations with respect to a particular child insofar as that person and the child share the requisite DNA.Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of Hallows' Even or Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in several countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' r-bridal.com begins the three-day observance of Allhallowtide, the time in the liturgical year dedicated to remembering the dead, including.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
ClassZone Book Finder.
Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book. Level M = 5th - 8th PRINTABLES: Go to this link to print out the worksheets for ALL year 4 courses!
Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem with a link.
Materials: Basic Supplies Program Year 4, Level M Day 1** Bible Read John 1 Write a summary of what. The essay is the most important part of a college appllication, see sample essays perfect for applying to schools in the US.
JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.