Is hydrogen the future of the car? By Mike Scott share With a hydrogen fuel cell-powered car setting new distance records in London, for distance travelled on one tank of hydrogen about milesand for the longest journey, of more than 6, miles in six days — is hydrogen the future of the car rather than electric vehicles? Can the two technologies co-exist or will one predominate?
By Marc Kaufman, NPR News Aug 25, The study of the formation and logic of the universe — cosmology — and the study of exoplanets and their conduciveness to life do not seem to intersect much.
Scientists in one field focus on the deep physics of the cosmos, while the others search for the billions upon billions of planets out there — and seek to unlock their secrets.
But astrophysicist and cosmologist Avi Loeb, a prolific writer about the early universe from his position at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, sees the two fields of study as inherently connected and has set out to be a bridge between them.
A result of his efforts is a theoretical paper that seeks to place the rise of life on Earth, and perhaps elsewhere, in cosmological terms. The Earth may well be a very early example of a living biosphere, having blossomed well before life might be expected on most planets.
And in theoretical and cosmological terms, there are good reasons to predict that life will be increasingly common in the universe as the eons pass.
By eons, here, Loeb is thinking in terms that don't generally get discussed in geological or even astronomical terms. The universe may be an ancient Peak life in the universe, he says, may arrive several trillion years hence.
Given these factors, Loeb says, we're early. In the long term, the authors determined, the dominant factor in terms of which planets might become habitable proved to be the lifetime of stars.
The higher a star's mass, the shorter its lifetime.
Stars larger than about three times the sun's mass will burn out well before any possible life has time to evolve. Our sun is a relatively large and bright star, which is why its lifetime will be relatively short in cosmological terms all together, maybe 11 billion years, with 4.
But smaller stars, the "red dwarf," low-mass variety, are both far more common in the universe and also much longer lived — as in trillions of years. These smallest stars generally have less than 10 percent the mass of our sun, but they burn their fuel hydrogen and helium much more slowly than a larger star.
Indeed, some may glow for 10 trillion years, Loeb says, giving ample time for life to emerge on any potentially habitable planets that orbit them. What's more, there's every reason to believe that the population of stars in the galaxy and cosmos will increase significantly, giving life ever more opportunity to commence.
As a result, the relative probability of life grows over time. In fact, chances of life are 1, times higher in the distant future than now. This calculation, however, comes with a major caveat: Scientists are sharply divided about whether or not a star much smaller than ours can actually support life.
The potential obstacles are many — an insufficient amount of heat and energy emanating from the star unless the planet is close in, the fact that red dwarf stars have powerful, luminous beginnings that could send a nearby planet into a runaway greenhouse condition that might result in permanent sterilization, and that many planets around red dwarfs would be close to the stars and consequently tidally locked.
That means that one side of the planet would always face the star and be light, while the other would continue in eternal darkness.
This was earlier considered to be a pretty sure deterrent to life. Recent theoretical analyses of planets around these red dwarfs, however, suggests that life could indeed emerge. It could potentially survive at the margins — where day turns into night and the temperatures would likely be stable — and also in other dayside regions were temperatures could be moderated by clouds and winds.
But no observations have been made to substantiate the theory. Because of their relatively cool temperatures and resulting low brightness, individual red dwarfs are nearly impossible to see with the naked eye from Earth.
But they're out there. The nearest star to our sun, Proxima Centauri, is a red dwarf, as are 20 of the next 30 nearest stars.Apr 16, · The fuel in the tank of a hydrogen-powered car, for instance, is far less volatile than gasoline and, if the tank is ruptured, hydrogen gas would dissipate quickly into the air.
Hydrogen Fusion, the Future Source of Energy Abstract The world is currently in an energy crisis with no end in sight. Many technologies can help reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and have the possibility of ending the energy crisis. Tokyo Metropolitan University (TMU) serves not just its students but also the metropolis of Tokyo.
With the es- a very bright future in chemistry.” A hydrogen-fueled future With the Tokyo Olympics just four years ing hydrogen fuel in Tokyo, we need to research and develop not only hydro-. Apr 20, · Hydrogen - the Fuel of the Future?
Real Engineering. Loading Unsubscribe from Real Engineering? Cancel Unsubscribe.
Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe M. The spring night sky has well and truly sprung, and although these months are sign of brighter evenings and therefore later bedtimes if you want star gaze, there are still lots of . The appeal of hydrogen fuel cells has long been obvious.
Because these devices use electrochemical reactions to generate electricity from hydrogen, emitting only heat and water in the process, they offer a particularly green source of .